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|Title||Exposure to War Traumatic Experiences, Post traumatic Growth and Resilience among University Students in Gaza|
Aim: To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post traumatic growth and resilience among universities students in the Gaza Strip, 9 months after 51 days' war on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. Method: The sample consisted of 381 randomly selected students from representative four major universities in Gaza, who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, Resilience scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results: Participants reported a range of traumatic events, the highest frequencies of reported traumatic events were watching mutilated bodies in TV (94.5%), hearing shelling of the area by artillery (92.4%), hearing the loud voice of drones (87.4%), forced to and inhalation of bad smells due to bombardment (78.7%). While, the least common traumatic experiences were hearing killing of a friend (11%), and being arrested during the land incursion witnessing (18.9%). The mean total traumatic events were 10 (SD =4.7). The results showed that 6% reported mild traumatic events, 36% reported moderate traumatic events, and 58% reported severe traumatic events. Male students had experienced significantly more traumatic events than females. Mean PTG was 67.34, appreciation of life was 7.17, new possibilities was 12.25, the personal strength was 10.62, and spiritual change was 6.82. Males had significantly more post traumatic growth than females (Mean = 69.19 vs. 65.68) and females had significantly more spiritual changes than males (Mean =6.46 vs. 7.1). For resilience, mean resilience was 55, personal competence was 22.32, Positive acceptance was 13.49, trust in one's instincts was 16.30, control was 7.96, and spiritual influences were 7.31. There were gender differences on resilience subscale. Males had significantly more positive acceptance h than females (Mean = 13.9 vs. 13) (t = 2.46, = 0.01), trust in others (Mean = 17.22 vs. 15.46), control (Mean = 8.21 vs. 7.7), spiritual influences, and females had significantly more spiritual changes than males (Mean = 7 vs. 7.5). There were statistically significant differences in control subscale toward students from Al Azhar University. There were negative associations between total traumatic events and spiritual influences and spiritual change. Total resilience was positively correlated with total Post traumatic growth, appreciation of life, new possibilities, personal strength, relating to others, and spiritual change. Discussion: Universities students still experienced high levels of distress few months following an acute period of conflict, although they remained exposed to trauma. No correlation between trauma, resilience, and posttraumatic growth. Implications for Practice: There is need for different levels of support for universities students in war-affected areas, and these should continue beyond the end of hostilities. Key words: Gaza, posttraumatic growth, resilience, trauma, war.
|Published in||التداعيات التربوية والنفسية للعدوان على غزة|
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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