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|Title||Serum Vitamin D Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients from Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip|
|Title in Arabic||تقييم مستوى فيتامين د في مصل الدم لدى الاشخاص المصابين بمرض السكري من النوع الثاني في محافظة غزة - قطاع غزة|
Background: Type 2 diabetes is prevalent in Gaza strip. Although vitamin D deficiency has been recently linked to diabetes, biochemical tests are restricted to traditional monitoring of glucose. Therefore, introducing vitamin D test in Gaza hospitals may help in the management of the disease. Objective: To assess serum vitamin D level in type 2 diabetic patients from Gaza Strip. Materials and methods: This case-control study comprised 58 type 2 diabetic patients (29 males and 29 females) and 58 healthy controls (29 males and 29 females). Questionnaire interview was applied. Body mass index was determined. Serum vitamin D, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinin, calcium and phosphorus were determined. Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: The mean ages of cases and controls were 52.8±7.3 and 52.9±7.5 years, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was more frequent among unemployed individuals, families with low income and individuals with family history of the disease (P<0.05). About two-thirds of the patients were not on diet and almost half of the patients had diabetes since 5 years or less. The main self-reported complications were retinopathy, cardiovascular disease and neuropathy. The BMI was significantly higher in cases than controls. The mean level of vitamin D was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (25.9±11.0 vs. 34.6±13.8 ng/dl, P=0.000). The levels of blood HbA1c and serum glucose were significantly increased in cases compared to controls (7.9±1.7 vs. 5.3±0.8 %, P=0.000 and 208.2±113.0 vs. 100.5±24.4 mg/dl, P=0.000 respectively), whereas serum insulin was significantly decreased in cases (13.0±13.7 vs. 18.0±8.7 MlU/ml, P=0.030). The mean levels of triglycerides was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (284.7±120.2 vs. 234.2±134.6 mg/dl, P=0.035) whereas HDL-C was significantly lower in cases (34.5±7.1 vs. 41.3±10.9 mg/dl, P=0.000). The activities of ALT and AST were significantly higher in cases compared to controls (20.9±14.8 vs. 16.5±6.2 U/L, P=0.045 and 22.6±10.6 vs. 17.9±6.0 U/L, P=0.004, respectively). Serum calcium was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (9.0±0.7 vs. 9.4±0.7 mg/dl, P=0.002). Vitamin D was inversely associated with family history of diabetes. Serum vitamin D levels showed significant negative correlations with BMI (r=-0.201, P=0.032), HbA1c (r=-0.188, P=0.046), ALT (r=-0.192, P=0.040) and AST (r=-0.188, P=0.044), and significant positive correlations with HDL-C (r=0.188, P=0.044) and calcium (r=0.239, P=0.010). Conclusions: Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls. Serum vitamin D levels showed significant negative correlations with BMI, HbA1c, ALT and AST, and significant positive correlations with HDL-C and calcium.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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