Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title||Histopathological and Histochemical Study of Tramadol on Rabbit's Liver and Kidney|
|Title in Arabic||دراسة نسيجية مرضية ونسيجية كيميائية لتاثير الترامادول على كبد و كلية الارنب|
Background: Tramadol is used worldwide and is listed in many medical guidelines to treat both acute and chronic pain. It is a synthetic opiate analgesic with serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor properties. There is growing evidence of abuse of tramadol in some African and West Asian countries. Abuse of tramadol is reported by Egypt, Gaza, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Tramadol has some side effects and adverse reactions and may cause psychological and physical addiction similar to that of other opiates. Aim: The present study was designed a follow up of the histopathological and histochemical response which might be induced in the liver and kidney as a consequence of tramadol application. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was injected to six groups of adult rabbits weighted (1000±200 g). The 1st, 2nd , 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th groups were daily injected with tramadol (40mg/kg. body weight) for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days respectively. The 6th group treated with tramadol for 30 days and left for 10 days for recovery. Control group injected with distilled water. Formalin-fixed liver and kidney were processed by the standard paraffin wax technique, sectioned in (4–5µm) thicknesses, stained with Harris's alum heamatoxylin and eosin for histopathological investigation. For the histochemical study, sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff’s method to demonstrate total carbohydrates and with mercury bromophenol blue method to demonstrate total proteins. Results: Several alterations were observed. The changes in the liver histological structure include congestion in the central vein, diffuse of Kupffer cells, karyolysis and complete pyknosis of many cells were noticed after treatment with tramadol for 30, 40 and 50 days and congestion in sinusoids after treatment for 10 days. Moderate inflammatory cells infiltration, piecemeal necrosis and fibroblastic cells proliferation was observed in groups treated for 30 day. On the other hand, vascular degeneration in the epithelial cells lining the renal tubules at the cortical zone with pyknotic and karyolysed nuclei were noticed in kidney of rabbits treated with tramadol for 30, 40 and 50 days. In addition, swelling in the lining epithelium of the renal tubules and the presence of inflammatory cellular infiltration, expansion of glomerulus, glomerular tuft atrophy, focal tubular necrosis and mild mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed. More excessive necrosis of tubular epithelial cells, dilated tubules and expansion of glomerulus were observed after 40 and 50 days of treatment. In recovery group the rabbits treated with tramadol for 30 dose and left for 10 days without administration of tramadol, some of the previous observations were disappeared. The liver of rabbits treated with tramadol for 10 days preserved the normal contents of glycogen similar to that of control animals, while Specimens treated for 30 days showed mild glycogen depletion involving many hepatic cells. Rabbits treated for 50 days showed marked glycogen depletion in comparison to the rabbits hepatocytes of the control. Examination of kidney sections of the rabbits treated with tramadol for 10 days revealed a normal PAS reaction, while kidneys of rabbits treated for 30 and 50 days of tramadol showed marked diminution in PAS positive material in the renal corpuscles and tubules. The animals received tramadol for 10 days did not manifest obvious changes in the protein contents of their hepatocytes. Hepatocytes of rabbits treated with tramadol for 30 and 50 days demonstrated a severe reduction of protein contents in comparison to the hepatocytes of the control rabbits. Examination of kidney sections of the rabbits injected with tramadol for 30 and 40 days manifested obvious changes in the protein contents of their kidney cells. The glomeruli and renal tubules have lost the most protein contents and became slightly less stainable than the control animal. The protein contents as well as the general appearance of the hepatocytes and renal tissues were approximately restored after administration of tramadol and leave rabbits for a recovery period. Conclusion: Tramadol can causes histological and histochemical changes in kidney and liver, especially when high or repeated low dose of it are used.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
|Files in this item|