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|Title||Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Type 1 Diabetic Children in Gaza Strip|
|Title in Arabic||العدوى ببكتيريا الملوية بين الاطفال المصابين بالسكري من النوع الاول في قطاع غزة|
Background: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the world and type 1 diabetes usually strikes children and young adults. Over 17 new cases of type 1 diabetes were identified per 100 000 children worldwide annually. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is believed to be associated with Type 1diabetes. Objective: To assess H. pylori infection among type 1 diabetic patients in Gaza strip. Materials and methods: This case-control study comprised 60 type 1 diabetic children and 60 healthy controls. Questionnaire interview was applied. Blood samples were collected, processed and analyzed for H. pylori IgG, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were determined. Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured. White blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) and platelet (PLT) were determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Type 1 diabetes was more prevalent among families with higher income as well as among individuals with family history of the disease. Three quarters of cases were not on diet. However, the majority of cases were found to be compliance of medication. Almost two-thirds of patients had diabetes since less than 5 years. Neuropathy and gastritis were significantly more frequent among cases compared to controls. The BMI was significantly increased in cases compared to controls (18.6±3.8 versus 17.3±3.3 Kg/m2, P=0.047). Blood HbA1c and serum glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher in cases compared to controls (9.8±1.8%, 169.6±111.9 mg/dl and 26.7±17.0 mlU/ml versus 5.0±0.5%, 77.7±7.0 mg/dl and 10.6±4.7 mlU/ml, respectively, P=0.000). Serum AST and ALT activities were significantly higher in cases compared to controls (32.1±7.8 and 26.5±12.4 U/L versus 22.0±10.5 and 19.5±7.5U/L, respectively, P=0.000). White blood cell count was significantly increased in cases compared to controls (7.5±2.4 versus 6.7±1.8 x 109/L, P=0.030). Conversely RBC count and hemoglobin content showed significant decreases in cases than controls (4.5±0.4 and 11.7±1.2 versus 4.7±0.5 x 1012/L and 12.4±1.3 g/dl, P=0.016 and 0.005 respectively). The prevalence of H. pylori among diabetic patients 24 (40.0%) was significantly higher than controls 13 (21.7%) with P=0.030. When related to H. pylori, BMI showed significant increase in positive cases compered to negative cases (21.0±3.8 versus 17.8±3.5, P=0.003). Blood HbA1c and serum glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher in positive than in negative cases (10.5±1.7%, 233.8±145.2 and 34.2±21.7 versus 9.5±1.7%, 146.3±87.9 mg/dl and 23.9±14.2 mlU/ml, P=0.046, 0.006 and 0.037 respectively). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C were significantly increased in H. pylori positive cases than in negative cases (186.2±35.0, 135.5±44.2 and 107.9±32.9 mg/dl, versus 157.8±19.4, 99.5±29.4 and 83.4 ±18.6 mg/dl, P=0.001, P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectivily), whereas HDL-C was significantly lower in positive cases (51.3 ±3.7 versus 54.6±2.6 mg/dl, P=0.001). The activity of ALT was significantly higher in positive compared to negative cases (29.1±8.5 versus 24.5±7.3U/L, P=0.045). The WBC count was also singnificantly elvated in H. pylori positive cases (7.8±1.5 versus 6.7±1.9 ×109/L, P=0.041). Conversely, RBC and Hb were significantly decrease in positive cases than negative cases (4.6±0.5 and 11.9±1.1 versus 4.9±0.4×1012/L and 13.0±1.4 g/dl, P=0.023 and 0.012 respectivily). Conclusions: H. pylori infection was significantly higher in type 1 diabetic patients compared to controls. H. pylori infection was positively associated with BMI, blood HbA1c, serum glucose and insulin, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, ALT, and WBC and nigatively associated with HDL-C, RBC count and Hb content.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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