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|Title||Potential Health Effects on Human from Contamination of Fish Muscle Tissues, Seawater and Sand Beach by Heavy Metals in the Mediterranean Sea of Gaza and North Governorates, Palestine|
|Title in Arabic||الاثار الصحية المحتتملة على الانسان من تلوث الانسجة العضلية في الاسماك و مياه البحر ورمال الشاطئ بالعناصر الثيلة في البحر الابيض المتوسط في كل من محافظتي غزة و الشمال في قطاع غزة - فلسطين|
Background: Metallic element with high atomic weight (e.g., mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead) can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain. Objectives: To investigate the presence of heavy metals contaminants like Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in the muscles of some important fish available in Gaza seawater; L. aureti and N. aurifilum. Also To investigate the presence of heavy metals contaminants like Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in seawater and sediment and to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption Material and methodology: The levels of heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of the samples using kjldahl heating digester. Result: The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in the muscles of L. aureti and N. aurifilum. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in muscles of Lithognathus aureti were as follows: Cu: 1.465 µg/g , Zn: 1.028 µg/g, Mn: 0.054 µg/g, Ni: 0.315 µg/g, Pb: 0.067 µg/g and Cd: 0.004 µg/g which showed the highest level of Cu and the lowest level of Cd according to the ranking pattern (Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cd). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in muscles of Nemipterus aurifilum were as follows; Cu: 1.123µg/g, Zn: 1.011µg/g, Mn: 0.031µg/g, Ni: 0.113µg/g, Pb: 0.073µg/g and Cd: 0.003µg/g which showed the highest level of Cu and the lowest level of Cd according the ranking pattern (Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cd). Estimated levels of all metals in the present study were lower than the limits permitted by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (1989,1996), European Community Regulation (EU, 2005)), the United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF,1995). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in seawater were as follows; Cu: 0.247mg/l, Zn: 0.778 mg/l, Ni: 1.754 mg/l, Mn: 0.238 mg/l, Pb: 3.165 mg/l and Cd: 0.324 mg/l. The highest mean concentrations were in Pb and Ni in all sampling sites followed by Zn. This lead to the following ranking: Pb > Ni > Zn and the lowest mean concentration in seawater in all sampling sites were; Mn < Cu < Cd. These results were above the limits for seawater proposed by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA,), European Community Regulation (EU), and the United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment were as follows; Cu: 0.479 mg/g, Zn: 0.587mg/g, Mn: 0.160mg/g, Ni: 0.154mg/g, Pb: 0.100mg/g and Cd: 0.010mg/g. The highest concentrations were in Zn and Cu in all sampling sites followed by Ni, Mn and Pb which lead to the following ranking: Zn > Cu > Ni > Mn > Pb > Cd. These results were above the limits for sediment in present study proposed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), and United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA,). It is clear that no risk on human health would be raised at present from the consumption of N. aurifilum and L. aureti ﬁsh from the Gaza Strip. Therefore in case of sediment and seawater it is mostly considered above the international standards which may cause health risk on human from a long exposure during summing recreation time. Transfer factor (accumulation factor) for both L. aurti and N. aurifilum was less than one, except (Cu) and (Zn) above one which indicated that accumulation of heavy metals from seawater and sediment mostly considered.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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