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|Title||Impacts Evaluation of Effluent Discharge of Khan Yunes Wastewater Treatment Plant on Beach Quality for Recreational Purposes|
|Title in Arabic||تقييم تاثير ضخ مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة الناتجة عن محطة خانيونس على جودة الشاطئ لاغراض الاستجمام|
The Gaza beach of the coastal line is important area for recreation purposes. It is heavily polluted with treated, partially treated and untreated sewage from point and non-point sources. The aim of current study is focuses on assessing the seawater quality of Khan Yunes beach after constructing the new effluent connection of Khan Yunes Wastewater Treatment Plant (KYWWTP) and evaluates the beach quality of the study area for recreation uses according to WHO standard. Ten bathing sites in the Khan Yunes beach were monitored for 3 months (fortnightly) during summer season of 2011 by using different parameters (physio-chemical and microbiological) for water and sand samples. Seawater samples were subjected to microbiological analysis (fecal coliforms and fecal enterococci) and physiochemical analysis (water temperature (TºC), pH, TDS, dissolved oxygen (DO),Turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (NH4+), orthophosphorus (PO4-), chlorophyll a ). And sand beach samples were subjected to microbiological analysis (fecal coliforms and fecal enterococci) and physiochemical analysis (pH and TDS). A public health questionnaire was also distributed in three locations to assess the impact of swimming at polluted recreational area on the health of beach goers. The results of the current study showed that all studied locations were polluted and failed to comply with WHO standards in terms of fecal enterococci, and showed that the enterococci bacteria are more restrictive standard of coastal water quality, as compared with the coliform bacteria. Furthermore, the locations close to discharge point showed the highest level of pollution for all tested parameters. The levels of pollution decreased with distance from the sewage outlets. Moreover, the level of fecal coliform and fecal enterococci bacteria in sand beach was higher than the water column. In the other hand, the results of chlorophyll a showed that most of the study area during the study period, indicating eutrophic conditions. In addition, the statistical analyses showed a significant spatial correlation in some of the tested parameter, while other parameters showed linear correlation (e.g., DO and BOD, BOD and fecal coliforms, BOD and fecal enterococci). The results of the public health questionnaire showed that, a high percentage of the study population selected the recreation area based on clean and healthy (62%), and (90%) believe that swimming in contaminated area may transmit diseases. In addition, (51%) of population sample suffered from the symptoms after visiting the beach. And the children appear the highest level of symptoms compared with the elderly group. A skin and eye complain were the most common symptoms in beach goers. Moreover, no significant correlation (p= 0.483) between contact with beach sand and the possibility of symptoms appeared. The study concluded that the all monitoring locations were polluted and failed based on fecal enterococci bacteria to comply with WHO standards. The level of fecal coliform and fecal enterococci bacteria in sand beach is higher than water column. Moreover, swimming in waters with high levels of (FIB) increase the chance of developing illness from pathogens entering the body through the mouth, nose, ears, or cuts in the skin. The integrating physiochemical and microbiological parameters in the monitoring programme of seawater gives a more realistic picture of seawater quality in the Khan Youes beach. The study recommended that discontinue the flow of sewage into the marine environment, which is the main source of pollution to both seawaters and sand beach according to the results of this study. The effluent discharge method should be reconsidered. A distance of not less than 400 meters inside seawater is recommended by many international agencies. And establishment of the main wastewater treatment plants in Khan Yunes governorates, as much as possible to minimize environmental risks to the marine and recreational environment. Finally, establish educational programs to increase the public awareness of health hazards associated with seawater pollution. The public should be informed properly by posting signs indicating polluted areas. Radio and TV messages also are recommended to warn public from recreation in polluted areas.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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