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|Title||Tunneling Effect on Foundation Settlement|
One of the problems of tunneling in urban spaces is ground settlements to surface structures. Ground movement prediction is closely related to structural performance and the interaction between the ground and the tunnel. This complexity means that normally conservative assumptions may not be appropriate and in some instances could even cover the most significant issues with particular tunnel crossings. Current design approaches are conservative and lead to predict of the settlement of foundation building specially when tunnel crossing under the foundation of structure and guide engineers to design tunnels to safe these building from damages or danger cracks. Recently, a new approach, based on applying numerical methods using the PLAXIS finite element software code to provide direct equations to calculate settlement due to tunneling in urban area. Different loads and different type of soils were investigated. Results show that tunnel diameter is a major geometrical parameter which increase the effect of settlement. And loads on foundation must be considered in simulation to assure reliable results were with more loads the settlement will increase. Also soil type is another important factor which has significant effects on the tunneling–building interaction behavior. And increasing of tunnel depth, surface distance of foundation from the upper face of tunnels decrease the effect of settlement. Six equations was developed for predicting the maximum settlements of foundation to use in preliminary design stage. Results compare very with measured available data (case study: - Shiraz metro line1).The results for medium clay show maximum settlement of 18.5 mm while the measured settlement by Shiraz meter case was 19 mm. This show a good agreement between calculation and measured values. And result shows that for sand settlement of foundation range from 0.60mm to 5.12 mm in Greenfield, but in clay settlement of foundation range from 11.4mm to 42.3mm.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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