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|Title||Practice in disaster management through non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Gaza Strip|
|Title in Arabic||الممارسات في ادارة الكوارث من خلال المنظمات غير الحكومية في محافظات غزة|
Purpose: Community practice has been recognized as an essential element in disaster management to reverse the worldwide trend of increasing frequency and loss from disasters, build a culture of safety and disaster resilient communities, and ensure sustainable development for all. This thesis endeavors to gain a better understanding of the practice of disaster management through the non-governmental organizations, and how dealing and managing with disasters concerning the three phases (pre, during and post) disaster. This thesis is aimed to investigate the practice of disaster management through Non-governmental organization in disaster management, by identifying the strategies, factors and challenges influencing the disaster management process based on community participation and knowledge management in disaster management phases (pre, during and post) in the Gaza governorates. A background study on the international development of the concept of disaster risk management and its components are introduced. The study surveys the conventional disaster policy and the recent changes in disaster management in Gaza governorates. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives of this research have been achieved through a quantitative survey study of closed-ended questionnaires in Gaza governorates. Purposive sampling strategy has been used to secure the requisite number of respondents from local communities for meaningful statistical analysis. Overall 86 questionnaires from 90 sent questionnaires were considered usable for the data analysis. The total response rate was (86/90) *100 = (95.5 %). Responses from respondents in returned questionnaires were carefully coded and input into SPSS version 22 software and then analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The descriptive tools used were percentages, tables, mean, standard deviations, half split method, Alpha-Cronbach Coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficients, factor analysis and Relative Importance Index (RII). After the data analysis, the results discussed and explained. Findings conclusion considering and recommendations obtained were stated and the whole study was summarized. Findings: Pre-Disaster: The results showed that community participation through NGOs in Gaza governorates in pre-disaster lacked to effective disaster preparedness. Findings indicated that the most important strategy ranked by the respondents in pre-disaster is: Provide various educational backgrounds regarding disaster management. Results obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation pre-disaster strategies in three components, i) Prepare effective coordination and management plans, ii) Prepare information and knowledge systems, and iii) Provide early warning and communication plans. Furthermore, the results showed that the top ranking of success factor according to the respondents is: Channels of public awareness and education related disaster management. Results obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation pre-disaster success factors in five components, i) Best knowledge regarding risk perception, geographic and methodologies, ii) Capacity building for community and organization members, iii) High level of education and knowledge, iv) Social trust and community networks, and v) Dissemination of risk awareness. In addition, the findings indicated that the most challenge in pre-disaster is: Communities have no emergency resources regarding disaster. Results obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation pre-disaster challenges in five components, i) Limited of governmental support before disaster, ii) lack of preparedness and capacity building activities, iii) Lack of coordination between local communities and NGOs before disaster, and iv) lack of awareness and knowledge activities before disaster. During-Disaster: The finding showed that community participation during disaster through NGOs respond in Gaza governorates is weak and limited. The most strategy during disaster ranked by the respondents is: Organize relief and aid in time of disasters. The obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation during-disaster strategies in three components as follows, i) Share information and communication in real time, ii) Enhance and ensure the cooperation between NGOs and local communities, and iii) Ensure planning and providing needs based on damage. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the most important during-disaster success factor is: Shelters availability for evacuation in case of a disaster. The obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation during-disaster success factors in four components as follows, i) Local communities and NGOs power structure during disaster, ii) Availability of operation and evacuation centers, iii) Previous knowledge and experience in response to disasters, and iv) Best preparedness measures and relationship among families. In addition, the findings showed that the top important ranking during-disaster challenge is: Overpopulation slows down response activities. The obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation during-disaster success factors in two components as follows, i) Lack of cooperation and emergency plan during disaster, and ii) Limited access to services during disaster. Post-Disaster: The findings revealed that community participation in disaster management through NGOs in post-disaster in Gaza governorates is complicated, limited and still weak. The most ranked important post-disaster strategy is: Conduct anti-graft advocacy to avoid corruption in reconstruction. The findings obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation post-disaster strategies in five components, i) Encourage participation and conduct meetings related post-disaster recovery, ii) Provide significant support for population in post-disaster phase, iii) Community involvement with post-disaster project phases, iv) Apply transparency and psychosocial models with affected communities, and v) Share legal advocacy related post disaster recovery process. Moreover, the top ranking for post-disaster success factor is: The importance of government support. The findings obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation post-disaster success factors in five components, i) Clearly information and communication for reconstruction process, ii) Effective arrangement between institutions and local communities in reconstruction process, iii) Implementer capacity in reconstruction process, iv) Community empowerment and control in reconstruction process, and v) Effective policy, transparency and accountability in reconstruction. In addition, the most post-disaster challenge ranked by the respondents is: Political and social pressure hinders the recovery process. The findings obtained from factor analysis have constructed community participation post-disaster success factors in four components, i) Lack of building back better activities between communities and NGOs after disaster, ii) Weakness of community-based organization after disaster, iii) Lack of participatory decision making process after disaster, and iv) Lack of effective communication awareness and knowledge after disaster. Disaster Knowledge Management: The findings also showed that disaster knowledge management types implementation for its use among NGOs in Gaza governorates is limited, except conducting meetings. The most disaster knowledge management type ranked by the respondents is: Creating a section on emergency management and endorsing qualified research projects. Results obtained from factor analysis have constructed disaster knowledge management types in three components, i) Launching awareness campaign related disasters, ii) Conducting meeting and sharing reports related disaster, and iii) Providing non-structural techniques related disaster knowledge. In addition, the results showed that the lack of using disaster knowledge management types from NGOs prevent local communities from exploiting the benefits of disaster knowledge management. The top ranking of disaster knowledge management roles is: It contributes to the capacity building of communities regarding disaster management. The obtained findings from factor analysis have constructed disaster knowledge management roles in four components, i) It leads to community’s involvement, ii) It encourages participation and empowerment, iii) It Influences decision making regarding disaster management, iv) It issues sustainability and community reach. Theoretical and practical implications of the research: Community participation in disaster is a common phenomenon in the developing countries. Considering the vast potential of community and putting its participation into practice in different stages of disaster management (prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and rehabilitation) will certainly help the disaster managers to make a safer society. Therefore, disaster management authorities and NGOs should implement activities at the local levels to empower communities for disaster management. The proposed integrated approach which includes both proactive and reactive strategies can be applied to managing disasters successfully (particularly man-made disasters) in Gaza Governorates. To be successful in promoting crisis and disaster management in Gaza governorates, the relevant NGOs, should demonstrate how significant crisis and disaster management is, so that they can be able to cope with crises and disasters more efficiently. It requires community collaboration and participation for capability development in effective management of projects required to predict, respond and recover from disastrous events. A comprehensive knowledge management framework should be established with academic institution and relevant organization and local authorities to support disaster management process in Gaza. The core of the proposed framework is the knowledge base with a set of involved knowledge management processes for knowledge acquisition, organization, creation, and sharing. Originality/value: This is the first study investigating community participation in disaster management and the role of NGOs towards local communities in Gaza governorates. This research will be of value to those interested in the mandate of NGOs and local community practice in disaster management. It offers insight into the effectiveness and benefit of incorporating of community participation and having disaster management strategies for the NGOs and involving the community with these. The disaster knowledge management will not end on a certain point and it will be a continuous process. Formal knowledge management systems will help to improve the present state and further provide proper knowledge in the future.
|Publisher||الجامعة الإسلامية - غزة|
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